Bennett Braun

Bennett Braun is a former psychiatrist (Illinois license no. 036042542[1]; Montana license no. 1​0​3​7​6[2]) based in Butte, MT. He cofounded the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD), serving as founding president of the organization from 1984-1985, and chairing the annual conferences for at least the first decade.[3] Braun opened the first inpatient unit dedicated to treating patients with dissociative disorders. An early advocate of salacious conspiracy theories and sued at least a dozen times by former patients, Braun is the most notorious of the conspiracy therapists, frequently featured in news articles and television specials promoting the unfounded theory of Satanic ritual abuse (SRA). He has had his license to practice medicine revoked twice.[1][2]

 

BennettBraunFromDatelineVideo
Bennett Braun on Dateline

Background


Braun graduated from the University of Illinois College of Medicine in 1968.[4] He then interned at Michael Reese Hospital and Medical Center until 1969 followed by a residency at the University of Chicago Medical Center, which he reportedly had difficulty completing.[5][6] According to Dateline, “he was asked to leave the University of Chicago Hospital after unspecified disagreements with the administration.”[6] Braun reportedly saw his first case of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in 1974 while on staff at Barclay Hospital. Soon after, he treated three additional MPD patients, and would go on to treat a total of 70 by 1980.[7] Braun began writing on MPD as early as 1981, and much of his early work focused on hypnosis as a therapeutic technique for treating MPD and other dissociative disorders.[8That same year, Braun and Richard Kluft began chairing the American Psychiatric Association’s MPD workshops after Ralph Allison (who chaired the workshops in 1978 and 1979) was no longer able to.[9] Braun wouldn’t become a certified psychiatrist until several years later and after three or four attempts to pass the exam.[6]

In 1984, the International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality (ISSMP) formed, with Braun as chair, when two dissociative disorders groups merged; one was run by George Greaves, and the other included Braun, Frank Putnam, and others.[10] The same year, Braun completed a residency at Rush University Medical Center and became president of the ISSMP.[7][9] In addition, after publishing a total of 20 articles on MPD, he opened a dissociative disorders unit at Rush.[7] The ISSMP also began holding annual conferences in 1984; prior to the 1986 conference, the organization was renamed the International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality and Dissociation (ISSMPD). It would later be called the International Society for the Study of Dissociation before becoming the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD), as it is known today.

In 1986 Braun published Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder which promotes hypnosis and a heavy medication regimen for treatment of MPD.[11] That same year, his girlfriend and future wife, Jane DuBrow, “met six students in rural Crete who claimed to belong to a Satanic cult and to have victimized children. Braun himself saw his first seven cases of Satanic ritual abuse that same year.”[7]

Braun was asked, along with Richard Kluft and Frank Putnam, to join the Advisory Committee for Dissociative Disorders for the DSM-III-R, published in 1987; the revised criteria softened language around the rarity of MPD. At the ISSMPD conference that year, Braun and Roberta Sachs presented a paper on “Issues in Treating MPD Patients with Satanic Cult Involvement.” The abstract began: “It is now well documented that a surprisingly large percentage of MPD patients were exposed to ritualistic abuse when they were children. . . . In fact, this overwhelming trauma probably fostered the growth of dissociative defenses and the later development of MPD. The present discussion will focus on how to treat MPD patients who were exposed to such psychological trauma as a result of being involved in a satanic cult.” It later states: “If one alter does admit to cult involvement, it is usually dissociated from conscious recollection. . . . Eventually, the patient may remember participating in rituals which involved promiscuous and sadistic sexual acts and/or religious sacrifices in which one or more persons were tortured and killed. . . . Suicidal ideation is usually prominent as many cult victims were programmed to kill themselves if they ever revealed anything about their participation. . . . Eventually, patients must learn to deal with intense guilt when they remember how they were abused and what they did to others. Typically, it is easier to accept that one has been abused rather than to admit that one has also been an abuser.[12] Braun, along with George Gray, presented another paper reporting the results of “a survey of [MPD] patients that was conducted at the [1986 conference]. 140 clinicians each contributed information concerning one MPD patient. . . . This study will report on the incidence of violent behavior of MPD patients and involvement with satanic worship and other cult-related activities.”[12] At every ISSMPD conference for the next several years, Braun would hold workshops on treating patients affected by the supposed plague of SRA.

In the first issue of the ISSMPD’s journal Dissociation, Braun published an article in which he proposed the BASK model of dissociation.[13] Later, in a 1989 paper, he wrote that “MPD is a condition wherein the ‘splitting’ of life history among two or more personalities becomes a mechanism of psychic survival.” A sentence that later appears in the same article claims the opposite: “As indicated earlier in the paper, true MPD is characterized by the existence of alter personalities with discrete life histories, by secrets, and by an abuse history that almost always must be uncovered.”[14]

In 1994 Braun received an award for his “services to women” from feminist icon Gloria Steinem, who reportedly met Braun in 1986 and “became an instant admirer and disciple.”[15] In 1995, just a few years before Braun’s dissociative disorders unit was shuttered, Richard Kluft said: “Every MPD patient in the country owes a personal debt of gratitude to Buddy [Braun]. He’s the first ever to get a unit set up for these people, and all the other units around the country follow the trail he has blazed.”[16]

In 1999 Braun’s Illinois license was suspended for two years.[17] In March 2000, he was expelled from the American Psychiatric Association and the Illinois Psychiatric Society.[18] Just two months later, he became clinical director at Shodair Children’s Hospital in Helena, Montana.[19] In June 2003, Braun obtained a license in Montana, a state that does not require doctors to have malpractice insurance coverage, where he would practice for the remainder of his career.[20] In his application, he attempted to explain away his troubles in Illinois as the result of a “smear campaign” by the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF).[21] His application included character references from Richard Kluft, Jan Fawcett, and Colin Cameron. Kluft and Cameron rated Braun’s medical ability as “above average,” and all references blamed “characterologically disturbed patients” and/or the FMSF for Braun’s legal troubles.[21]

After obtaining a Montana license, Braun opened a private practice.[22]

In 2017 the Drug Enforcement Agency investigated Braun, prompting him to surrender his controlled substances prescribing privileges that same year.[20][23] In 2020 Braun surrendered his Montana license and retired.[20] Braun is unlikely to seek to resume practicing medicine.

 

Role in the Satanic Panic


Braun’s primary role in the Satanic Panic relates to the combination of his belief in the conspiracy theory of SRA paired with his prominence within the organization today known as the ISSTD. Braun was considered one of the foremost experts in the treatment of dissociative disorders, often interviewed by reporters writing articles about the explosion of MPD and SRA cases. In addition, Braun in 1984 opened the first psychiatric unit dedicated to dissociative disorders. The harm resulting from his propagation of SRA to patients, mental health professionals, and the public at large is incalculable.

As indicated above, Braun was convinced of the existence of SRA by 1986. That year, Patricia Burgus and Elizabeth Gale separately entered treatment under the care of Braun and Roberta Sachs.

Burgus sought psychological help due to depression following a difficult birth. She experienced delusions that she was pregnant again and referred to herself as “we.” She saw a therapist named Ann Marie Baughman, who decided that the “we” Burgus referred to was actually her alter personalities. Baughman would hypnotize Burgus and address her different moods as separate personalities. Burgus felt that it was like role-playing at first but eventually felt real. Her condition deteriorated, and she was hospitalized following a suicide attempt. She was sent to Braun.[6]

Braun confirmed the diagnosis of MPD despite disagreement from six other psychiatrists.[6] He would eventually “discover” Burgus housed 300 alternate personalities. During treatment under Braun, Burgus was inappropriately prescribed massive doses of heavy drugs, often held in restraints for long periods of time, and hypnotized daily as part of a therapeutic regimen intended to recover and process supposedly hidden memories of past trauma. The drugs included Xanax, Halcion, and Inderal; the dosage for the latter, a blood pressure medication, was four times the normal dose.[6] Braun also prescribed sodium amytal, sometimes referred to as “truth serum.” Braun’s treatment led her to believe not only that her parents had sexually abused her as a child, but that she herself — the “high priestess” of a regional chapter of a Satanic cult — had raped, tortured, murdered and cannibalized thousands of children per year, including her own. Her children, aged 3 and 5, were then hospitalized in Rush’s child psychiatric ward and separated from Burgus because, she claims, Braun feared that her children would be a target of the cult. Braun arranged for the FBI to meet with Burgus in the hospital — when the FBI didn’t launch an investigation following the meeting, Braun remarked that the FBI had joined the Satanic conspiracy. At one point, Braun saw images of Burgus presenting one of her children to the Pope; this led Braun to conclude that the Pope was the head of the Satanic cult.[6] In a later deposition, Braun would confirm that Burgus had not spoken of Satanic cults prior to entering treatment under his care.

Child psychiatrist Elva Poznanski, believing that Burgus was sexually abusing her children during weekend visits, reported Burgus to the Department of Children and Family Services and was granted emergency custody of the kids. Poznanski and Braun would hold joint therapy sessions with the kids, hoping to uncover memories of abuse committed by Burgus; the children were awarded stickers for reporting “yucky secrets.” Braun brought handcuffs and real handguns to one of these sessions, hoping that these items would trigger memories not only of abuse the children had suffered, but also abuse the children themselves had been forced to perpetrate. Despite having no apparent symptoms of any psychiatric condition, Burgus’ children were both diagnosed with MPD, inappropriately prescribed heavy drugs, and hospitalized for a total of 1,200 days each.[7]

In one session, Burgus was told to strip naked and draw cult symbols on herself with a marker. Due to the drugs and hypnosis, she had no recollection of this, but woke up to find the symbols written on her body. She would later see pictures of her marked up naked body as part of an ISSMPD presentation Braun gave about her case. In 1987, Burgus “appeared at Braun’s ISSMPD conference on audiotape to teach the nearly 1,000 therapists in attendance about the Satanic cult—its organizational structure, its hidden suicide messages in greeting cards, its secret symbols and colors.” On a local television news program about MPD and Braun’s clinic, Braun had Burgus act as if she was switching between personalities.[6] On one occasion, Braun arranged for Burgus to have meatloaf served by her parents tested for human tissue; results were negative, but Braun wasn’t convinced.[7] Whenever Burgus would express skepticism regarding her recovered memories of SRA, Braun would convince her that “in order to progress therapeutically, it was necessary to accept as true the memories of such abuse.”[17] Like her children, Burgus spent years in the hospital. After being discharged, the Burguses searched for evidence of the cult’s existence and found nothing. Her condition improved dramatically immediately after leaving the hospital.[6]

Burgus and her two children each had a $1 million insurance cap; by the time they left the hospital, all three were close to reaching it. In a 1998 Dateline NBC program, Jan Fawcett, the head of Rush’s Department of Psychiatry at the time Braun was employed there, defended Braun’s use of hypnosis and indicated his awareness of Braun’s writings on Satanic cults. He stated that Burgus, who spent years of her life hospitalized away from her children, who was prescribed debilitating doses of heavy drugs, and who suffered from horrendous false memories of abuse both as a victim and perpetrator, had a “very good outcome,” which he attributed to Braun’s treatment, disregarding the fact that she only got better once she was no longer under Braun’s care. “He didn’t do anything that wrong … there’s no damages,” he said.[6]

Gale’s treatment under Braun and Sachs was remarkably similar, though Gale, at Braun’s alleged insistence, underwent a tubal ligation at age 31 to prevent her from giving birth to any additional cult victims. In October 1997, Burgus was awarded a $10.6 million settlement from the insurance companies representing Braun, Rush hospital, and Poznanski. She refused to agree to a gag order as part of the settlement.[6] Shortly after, in 1998, Braun’s dissociative disorders unit was shut down, likely due to Braun’s inability to obtain liability insurance coverage.[6] Braun would later sue the American Psychiatric Association, which managed his professional liability insurance, for settling the case over his objections; he eventually lost the case.[24][25] In 2004, Braun’s and Sachs’ insurance providers reached a settlement with Gale for $7.5 million.[15]

Braun and other members of the ISSMPD were included in the infamous 1988 Geraldo Rivera Show special entitled “Devil Worship: Exposing Satan’s Underground,” a program that substantially increased already-widespread Satanic Panic. They discussed alleged cult threats to therapists like themselves that treat SRA.[26] Rivera later apologized for the special.[27] At the ISSMPD conference that year, Braun blamed the substantial increase in MPD cases on child abuse perpetrated by Satanic cults.[28] By the end of the year Braun, along with Roberta Sachs, Walter C. Young, and Ruth T. Watkins, submitted for publication a paper reporting 37 cases of SRA.[29]

In a training video titled Ritual Child Abuse: A Professional Overview, Braun stated of these programmed victims: “What you’re trained to do is self destruct if you should remember too much.”[30][31] It is unclear how he reconciled this notion with the fact that his treatment regimen consisted largely of trying to produce exactly the memories to which this statement refers.

Also in 1989, Mary Shanley, who had recently sought therapy for anxiety and depression, began to have nightmares of abuse during childhood. Her therapist insisted these were real events and that Shanley may be a victim of SRA. The following year, Shanley was admitted to Forest Hospital, diagnosed with MPD, and told that she was a member of a Satanic cult (in addition to having been abused by the cult). She was then referred to Braun’s dissociative disorders unit — specifically Roberta Sachs — as the staff there were considered experts on treating SRA victims. Within five minutes of Shanley’s intake, Sachs used “finger signals” to diagnose her with MPD as a result of Satanic cult abuse. Although Braun’s unit was at capacity, Shanley was hospitalized in a separate unit in the same building and received treatment from Braun and Sachs before being admitted to Rush. Shanley’s admission to Rush was allegedly conditioned on her naming other members of the cult. In April 1990, Shanley reportedly called a friend and asked for help getting out of Braun’s facility. The friend was informed by Shanley’s husband that Braun was not allowing anyone outside the unit to contact Shanley; the friend would not hear from Shanley again until the Fall of 1993. During Shanley’s stay in Braun’s unit, Braun gave her large doses of medications and Sachs would use hypnosis to converse with her alter personalities. Both Braun and Sachs purportedly encouraged Shanley to name other members of the Satanic cult and paid little attention to the issues that prompted Shanley to seek therapy in the first place. In February of 1991, Shanley met with D. Corydon Hammond, who was in Chicago for a conference. Hammond attempted to uncover mind control programming, including by hypnotizing Shanley and asking her about the Greek alphabet. When Shanley indicated that she knew the letter “gamma,” Hammond asked for the “gamma erasure code.” Hammond, who believed that individuals still involved in cults should not be treated, concluded that Shanley had a dangerous “cult alter” and may have ritually abused her son. She was quickly sent to Spring Shadows Glen in Houston, Texas for “deprogramming” under the care of Judith Peterson, where she would remain in treatment until June 1993. Shanley’s treatment would later become the subject of the first criminal trial relating to recovered memory therapy, USA v. Peterson, et al. Braun, Sachs, and Hammond were unindicted co-conspirators in the case.[32][16]

As recalled by clinical psychologist and historian Richard Noll, a presentation delivered by Braun at the ISSMPD’s 1990 conference featured Braun exclaiming “See the Satanism!” while gesturing at an alleged SRA victim’s crayon marks on a sketch pad. “There it is!”[28]

From April to August of 1991, Braun provided psychiatric treatment to Rhonda Bloom. Like Burgus, Gale, and Shanley, Bloom alleged that Braun misdiagnosed her with MPD and convinced her of involvement in SRA. According to a summary of the case, Bloom was convinced by Braun and others that she was a product of incest between her mother and grandfather. In addition, the defendants allegedly persuaded Bloom to seek an abortion to prevent her future child from being offered up to the cult. Bloom’s lawsuit was dismissed due to surpassing the statute of limitations.[33]

In 1992, FBI Supervisory Special Agent Kenneth Lanning published his final investigative report into claims of widespread ritual abuse, after releasing a preliminary report three years earlier. The investigation, which failed to turn up any corroborative evidence for SRA conspiracy theories, reportedly involved Lanning attending ISSMPD conferences and visiting Braun’s psychiatric unit full of alleged SRA victims. The report contains the following sentence, possibly referring to Braun: “One nationally known therapist personally told me that the reason police cannot find out about satanic or ritualistic activity from child victims is that they do not know how to ask leading questions.”[34] In a Cavalcade Productions video produced that same year called Children at Risk: Ritual Abuse in America, Braun claimed that 25% of MPD patients are victims of SRA and that he has seen “well over 100” patients reporting SRA.[35]

In 2014 Noll published an article in Psychiatric Times on the role of psychiatrists such as Braun (who was mentioned by name) in the Satanic Panic. Braun’s response vociferously denied that he ever believed in the SRA conspiracy theories he repeatedly endorsed and promoted.[28]

 

Misconduct


In October 1999, the state of Illinois suspended his license for two years due to his treatment of Patricia Burgus and her children.[16] Poznanski, the child psychiatrist who treated the Burgus children during their lengthy hospitalization, avoided disciplinary action against her license by testifying against Braun in the licensing board’s investigation.[36] By May 2000, Braun became clinical director at Shodair Children’s Hospital in Helena, Montana; two months later, he was manager of the children’s unit before becoming a liaison between the hospital and insurance companies. Former employees of the psychiatric hospital alleged that Braun “had an active role in treating patients and gave advice on diagnosis and treatment” despite not having a license.[19]

In 2017, the Drug Enforcement Administration investigated Braun’s practice and obtained a search warrant for his office. The agency found he was “practicing outside the scope of his license”; in exchange for avoiding a criminal prosecution, Braun surrendered his controlled substances license.[20][22

In 2019, Ciara Rehbein became Braun’s twelfth former patient to file a lawsuit against him. Rehbein was referred to Braun in 2014 for treatment for anxiety and post-concussive syndrome following a motorcycle accident. Braun, reportedly the only psychiatrist in Butte, Montana, diagnosed her with several conditions and prescribed an antipsychotic medication. When the medication caused Rehbein to express symptoms of tardive dyskinesia, Braun switched her prescription to another medication that is also known for causing the same disorder. As a result of the large doses of medication, which Braun would sometimes dispense to her from his cupboard instead of sending the prescription to a pharmacy, Rehbein’s symptoms progressed to an extent that she had trouble walking and, according to a neurologist, lost all reflexes. Braun was also accused of prescribing substantially more controlled substances than the typical doctor. Braun asserted that he was following the standards of care.[23]

In 2020, Braun surrendered his license to practice medicine in Montana, with the medical board referring to his decision to surrender his DEA controlled substances license as “unprofessional conduct.”[20]

Despite all the lawsuits and license revocations, Braun has never admitted wrongdoing. All settlements were handled by Braun’s malpractice insurance over his objections, and the consent agreements with the licensing boards and DEA contain language clarifying that he accepts zero responsibility for his actions. Like other conspiracy therapists, Braun urged the public to “believe the victims” who make outlandish claims of SRA only to coldly accuse his patients of lying the instant they point the finger at him.

Although Braun founded and presided over the ISSTD, his name hardly appears on the organization’s website at all.[37] It is likely that the ISSTD, founded during the height of the Satanic Panic and which served as a vessel for Braun’s paranoid fantasies of SRA, wishes to continue promoting the SRA conspiracy theory Braun championed at early conferences while simultaneously distancing themselves from Braun’s well-documented and extensive malpractice which came about as a direct result of his belief in SRA. Instead of fulfilling his dream of exposing a worldwide network of cannibalistic Satanists, Braun was sued repeatedly, lost his license on multiple occasions, was forced to retire in obscurity, and can hardly receive a mention from the organization he founded. Instead of paving a path for conspiracy therapists to cement themselves in history as heroic saviors of victims of horrendous abuse, Braun’s pitiful legacy serves as a warning to other mental health professionals tempted to follow in his footsteps.

 

Notable quotes


From Making Monsters by Richard Ofshe and Ethan Watters: “Any patient who has an investment in a ritual abuse history at the start of therapy should be suspect,” [Braun] said, recommending that therapists carefully consider the validity of the stories if a patient “comes in saying that she was ritually abused, as opposed to [the therapist] having to pull the memories out of her.”[38]

 

“[The lack of physical evidence of SRA could be due to] mobile crematoriums, which we do know existed from the time of Hitler. In terms of the small babies, the leftover bones, cartilage, etc., were fed to dogs, ground [into] fertiliser.”[7]

 

“In her desire to study for finals, she had cut out watching cartoons on Saturday morning. Her child personalities didn’t like it, so they withheld the ability to do addition and subtraction.” She could still perform more complex mathematical operations, the reader is told, but she couldn’t pass an exam until she went back to watching cartoons to appease her “child personalities.”[39]

 

Braun, explaining how flowers sent to patients from family members can contain secret cult messages: “Red roses and white baby’s breath, it means a bloody suicide, as opposed to let’s say pink roses or pink carnation … which means hanging, often.”[6]

 

Shanley’s discharge summary, written by Braun: “Patient is a victim of satanic ritualistic abuse. Diagnosis of MPD. Apparently someone outside the family is activating her or an alter personality to attempt suicide … One of the inside parts states that the body will be in danger from March 22nd to April 13th. The right side remembers cult activities such as the rites of spring occurring on March 21st. This is apparently a time for initiation into one of three levels and also a time for blood sacrifice…One of the goals [of therapy] was to teach Mary some self-hypnosis techniques in order to help the alters communicate more appropriately between [sic] each other…by the end of March, Mary was working quite hard, but some internal parts were sabotaging her progress in therapy…She was struggling with the acceptance of the diagnosis of MPD and dissociation, having a high level of denial, frequently refusing her Inderal, not participating in group activities, maintaining an isolative [sic] and withdrawn demeanor…At this point, Mary was able to identify five generations of cult involvement, going back to Ireland, and an alter named Nura came out…”[16]

 

You don’t have evidence one way or the other because this may be the sample that didn’t have [human remains],” Braun said in a sworn statement defending his assertion that Burgus’s parents were cannibals who fed her human meat, even when his own hospital’s lab found no traces of human flesh in the sample Braun obtained from Burgus.[7]

 

Braun’s typical line of questioning, according to Burgus: “When you’re eating this person, what does it look like? When you’re actually biting into it, what does it taste like? What does it smell like? Is it cooked? Is the person raw? Is there a different taste between a child and an adult?[7]

 

According to Dateline NBC, Braun stated the following at the 1992 ISSMPD conference: “I’ve developed twelve p’s for your people in ritual abuse: pimps, pushers, prostitutes, physicians, psychiatrists, psychotherapists, principals & teachers, public workers, police, politicians & judges, priests & clergy of all religions.”[6]

 

“The reason these cases are so hard to diagnose is the patients develop so many personalities to hide behind as a means of protection. And unless these personalities can be coaxed out from the dark shadows of the patient’s mind, you would never know they existed.”[16]

 

“A patient who is dissociative and [is] telling things that are not accurate and/or [is] having flashbacks, you may need to, shall I say, enter the confusion so you can help them find their way out of it.”[7]

 

“The trick is to keep the patient in therapy long enough because often the patient has to relive the pain that caused the multiple personality disorder.”[40]

 

“We are working with a national-international type organisation that’s got a structure somewhat similar to the communist cell structure.”[7]

 

“I think we underestimate the mind’s ability for health or destruction of human tissue. [MPD patients] can tap healing powers that normal people don’t usually tap.”[40]

 

Braun, to Burgus: “Well, I’ve given you the ammunition to sue me.”[7]

 

“Inappropriate fears of inducing or exacerbating MPD with diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions – particularly hypnosis – can make the therapist hesitant to recognize or treat the condition.”[14]

 

“What you’re trained to do is self-destruct if you should remember too much.”[30][31]

 

“I want to help people. That’s the most important thing in my life.”[41]

 

See also


 

References


[1] ^ a b License lookup. Illinois Department of Financial & Professional Regulation.
[2] ^ a b License search. Montana Department of Labor & Industry.
[3] ^ International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality (1984). “Proceedings of the 1st international conference on multiple personality/dissociative states.” Chicago, Illinois.
[4] ^ University of Illinois College of Medicine. 1968 Graduating Class. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[5] ^ ShareCare profile – Dr. Bennett Braun, MD. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[6] ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Dateline NBC (27 October 1998). Devil’s Advocate?Livingston, NJ.
[7] ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hanson, Cynthia (1 June, 1998). “Dangerous Therapy: The Story of Patricia Burgus and Multiple Personality Disorder.” Chicago Mag. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[8] ^ Braun, B. G. (1984). Hypnosis creates multiple personality: Myth or reality?. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 32(2), 191-197. DOI: 10.1080/00207148408416009.
[9] ^ a b International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality (1985). “Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on multiple personality/dissociative states.” Chicago, Illinois.
[10] ^ Middleton, Warwick (23 May 2019). “An interview with Frank Putnam, part I.” ISSTD News. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[11] ^ Braun, B. G. (1986). Treatment of multiple personality disorder. American Psychiatric Pub.
[12] ^ a b International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality & Dissociation (1987). “Proceedings of the 4th international conference on multiple personality/dissociative states.” Chicago, Illinois.
[13] ^ Braun, B. G. (1988). The BASK model of dissociation. Dissociation, 1(1), 4-23.
[14] ^ a b Braun, B. G. (1989). Iatrophilia and iatrophobia in the diagnosis and treatment of MPD. Dissociation, 2(2), 66-69.
[15] ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (1 June 2018). “The Case of Gloria Steinem and Bennett Braun: Feminism, New Age, and Satanism.” In-Sight. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[16] ^ a b c d e False Memory Syndrome Foundation (1 September 1995). False Memory Syndrome Foundation Compilation: Dr. Bennett Braun. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[17] ^ a b State of Illinois Department of Professional Regulation (7 October 1999). Order against Bennett Braun.
[18] ^ No author (1 January 2001). “Lawsuit Raises Questions About APA Liability Insurance Program.” Psychiatric Times. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[19] ^ a b Anez, Bob (5 August 2001). “Board to investigate psychiatrist at Shodair.” Missoulian. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[20] ^ a b c d e State of Montana Board of Medical Examiners (22 January 2021). Final Order in the Matter of Bennett Braun.
[21] ^ a b Montana Board of Medical Examiners (30 May 2002). Bennett Braun licensure application.
[22] ^ a b Healthgrades profile – Bennett G Braun MD LTD. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[23] ^ a b Dunlap, Susan (5 May 2019). “Butte psychiatrist with troubled past faces new suit alleging negligence.” Montana Standard. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[24] ^ CourtListener (n.d.). Braun v. Bollinger, 931 N.E.2d 362 (Ill. App. Ct. 2006). Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[25] ^ LPP Law Firm (n.d.). David S. Osborne – Practice Highlights. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[26] ^ The Geraldo Rivera Show (22 October 1988). Devil Worship: Exposing Satan’s Underground.
[27] ^ Encyclopedia Britannica (n.d.). Geraldo Rivera. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[28] ^ a b c Noll, Richard (19 March 2014). “Speak, Memory.” Psychiatric Times. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[29] ^ Young, W. C., Sachs, R. G., Braun, B. G., & Watkins, R. T. (1991). Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: A clinical syndrome. Report of 37 cases. Child Abuse & Neglect, 15(3), 181-189.
[30] ^ a b Cavalcade Productions (1989). Ritual Child Abuse: A Professional Overview. Ukiah, California.
[31] ^ a b False Memory Syndrome Foundation (5 April 1994). Drs. Braun, Sachs, Hammond et. al. on Ritual Child Abuse. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[32] ^ False Memory Syndrome Foundation (17 September 1998). The Case of Mary Shanley. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[33] ^ Casetext (n.d.). Bloom v. Braun. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[34] ^ Lanning, Kenneth (January 1992). Investigator’s Guide to Allegations of “Ritual” Child Abuse. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[35] ^ Cavalcade Productions (1992). Children at Risk: Ritual Abuse in America. Nevada City, California.
[36] ^ Warmbir, Steve (10 July 1999). “Doctor will testify against her colleague.” The Daily Herald.
[37] ^ International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (n.d.). Keyword Search. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[38] ^ Ofshe, R., & Watters, E. (2018). Making monsters. (p. 189). Routledge.
[39] ^ Mesic, Penelope (1 September 1992). “Presence of Minds.” Chicago Mag.
[40] ^ a b Swanson, Stevenson (23 October 1985). “When One Personality Shatters Into Many.” Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.
[41] ^ Anez, Bob (15 October 2003). “Psychiatrist gets Montana medical license.” Missoulian. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Archived here.

 

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